Before Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal Rinpoche’‘s arrival to Bhutan, numerous clans ruled in different valleys of Bhutan, having internecine war and quarrel among themselves and with Tibet. The arrival of Zhabdrung Nawang Namgyal is considered as the most significiant era in the history of Bhutanese. Shabdrung literally means, “at whose feet one submits”. Over the next thirty years, he unified the country under his central leadership, which otherwise was fragmented into petty principalities, ruled over by the tribal feudal chiefs. Shabdrung established himself as the country’s supreme leader. He ruled over Bhutan for thirty-five years until his retirement in 1651 A.D. During his reign of 35 years, he built dzongs (fortress), monasteries, and religious institutions. He established the Drukpa Kargyupa school of Tantric Mahayana Buddhism in Bhutan. His reign was marked by the introduction of the unique dual system of governance called the Chhoesid. This new system was characterized by the sharing of power and authority between the Deb Raja or the Desi who was the head of secular affairs and the Dharma Raja or the spiritual head, called as Je Khempo . He also codified laws for the country. The laws were based on medieval theocratic principles called the Tsa-Yig. The successive ‘Dharma Rajas’ were the incarnations of the Shabdrung whereas the post of the Deb Raja was like that of the Prime Minister. In course of time, the Dharma Rajas preferring religious matters withdrew themselves into seclusion while the Deb Rajas consolidated their authority exercising sole responsibility over the secular affairs. The dual form of governance continued until the birth of the Wangchuk dynasty and establishment of hereditary Monarchy in 1907. Ugyen Wangchuck was elected as the first hereditary monarch of Bhutan on December 17, 1907. The present King Jigme Singye Wangchuck is the fourth hereditary king.The seventh and eighth Zhabdrung reincarnates ( avtars) died in 1931 and 1953.